- Site Analysis
- Site Use
- Passive Design
- Controlling temperature with passive design: an introduction
- Thermal simulation
- Location, orientation and layout
- Thermal mass
- Glazing and glazing units
- Controlling indoor air quality
- Controlling noise
- Climate change
- Passive House
- Material Use
- Wet Areas
- Health and Safety
- Other Resources
Designing the building and the spaces within it to benefit from natural light, ventilation and even temperatures.
* R1.5 is the minimum in buildings of high thermal mass construction. Source: BRANZ 2018: ER32 Retrofitting insulation in rental properties
Roofs timber frame
As most heat is lost through the roof of uninsulated homes, ceiling insulation is highly effective and should be the first priority in retrofit situations.
If the ceiling space is:
- fully accessible, fit bulk insulation between and over ceiling joists.
- partially accessible, install blown-in, loose-fill insulation.
If the roof is a skillion roof, options include:
- fitting battens under the existing ceiling, installing insulation and a new ceiling lining
- building a suspended or dropped ceiling and including insulation (can only be done if there is sufficient height)
- removing the existing ceiling lining and installing insulation the most cost-effective time to do this is when the lining needs to be replaced
- removing the roofing and installing insulation, then replacing or reinstalling the roofing.
Where there are recessed downlights in the ceiling, consult the drawings and details in NZS 4246:2016 Energy Efficiency Installing bulk thermal insulation in residential buildings.
Ground floor timber frame
Existing houses may have no subfloor insulation, or foil. Foil can get dusty, torn, or otherwise damaged, and lose its effectiveness, so should be removed before new insulation is added.
Retrofitting foil insulation under houses has been banned from 1 July 2016. People using staples or nails to attach the foil to timber members have sometimes accidentally pierced a live electrical cable. There have been five electrocution deaths and one non-fatal shock reported in New Zealand as a result.
Select an insulation product specifically designed for use under floors. Proprietary products include polystyrene friction-fitted between the joists, and segments such as polyester, glass wool or sheeps wool that come with tabs for fixing, or are held in place by strapping. Make sure the insulation is pressed firmly against the floor so there is no air movement between insulation and floor. Exposed subfloors may require sheet material fixed under the insulation to hold it firmly in place.
If the material is designed to be fixed by stapling to joists, take great care to avoid electrical cables. Some installers have been electrocuted after they put a steel staple through a live cable.
While you are working under a house, it is a good idea to also put insulation around any hot water pipes that run under the floor. Insulating foam tubes with a slit along one side can be pressed over the piping.
If the ground under the house is damp, lay polythene sheeting on the ground, and improve subfloor ventilation if possible.
Ground floor concrete slab
Improving the thermal resistance of an existing concrete slab on the ground is not usually a practical option. If renovations are to be carried out (provided there is sufficient ceiling height within the space), one option is to cover the existing slab with a polythene membrane, 25 mm thick polystyrene board and a 75 mm (minimum) thick topping slab. The new concrete must be isolated by a damp-proof membrane from existing timber framing to prevent moisture from the concrete being absorbed by the timber.
Alternatively, installing carpet and underlay will reduce the heat loss through an existing floor (although this cannot be used to meet minimum requirements of Building Code clause H1 Energy Efficiency).
Exterior walls timber and steel frame
Although walls account for a significant proportion of total heat loss from a home, it is usually too difficult and expensive to retrofit insulation. The most cost-effective option is to wait until wall linings or claddings need to be replaced and to fit insulation at that time. Otherwise, a more cost-effective alternative is to further reduce heat loss through the roof by fitting rolltype insulation over the top of insulation segments between the joists.
Insulation options include:
- removing external cladding or internal lining, installing insulation and fitting new cladding or lining
- installing an EIFS cladding system over the existing cladding
- battening existing interior linings, adding insulation and fitting new interior linings
Exterior walls concrete masonry or in situ concrete walls
Insulation options include:
- application of an EIFS cladding system externally
- battening with 90 mm framing and adding insulation and new plasterboard linings internally.
By applying the insulation externally, the benefit of the thermal mass walls is maintained.
Blown-in insulation for walls
There is a range of blown-in insulation options for retrofitting insulation to existing walls. Currently none of the available systems hold a BRANZ Appraisal. Key considerations when retrofitting blown-in wall insulation are:
- A building consent must be obtained before the work is carried out.
- Only use this option if it is appropriate for the existing construction for example, such products should not be installed into walls that do not have a flexible wall underlay (building paper or building wrap) installed behind the cladding. A 20 mm clear gap must be left between the underlay and the back of the cladding. This is to allow for some drainage and drying and prevent direct contact (and water transfer).
- Injected or blown-in insulation must not be installed into any drained and ventilated cavity (especially brick veneer) it will restrict the cavity drainage and drying.
For many existing windows, insulating glass units (double or triple glazing) can be retrofitted, but for a whole house this is likely to be expensive.
Secondary glazing can be a very cost-effective option. With this, plastic film, magnetically attached plastic sheet, plain or low-E glass is installed inside the existing glass with a still air gap between them. Research (largely carried out at BRANZ) found that secondary glazing gave R-values from R0.36 to R0.57. This confirms that secondary glazing can be used as a functional alternative to retrofitted insulating glass units in existing domestic single-glazed window frames. Depending on circumstances, secondary glazing may only be installed over the winter months.
For more information on timber-framed windows, see BRANZ Bulletin BU507 Timber windows retrofit glazing options for thermal improvement.
See glazing and glazing units for details.
Updated: 19 September 2018